Source: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Click HERE to purchase. — NOTE: DSM IS AN INVALUABLE BOOK TO HAVE TO HELP YOU UNDERSTAND VARIOUS BRAIN DISORDERS. THIS POST IS AN EXCERPT FROM THE BOOK (DSM5). TO GET MORE INFORMATION ON ANY SPECIFIC BRAIN DISORDER, YOU CAN PURCHASE THIS BOOK OR FIND IT AT YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY. — The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the handbook used by health care professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders. DSM contains descriptions, symptoms, and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. It provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about their patients and establishes consistent and reliable diagnoses that can be used in the research of mental disorders. It also provides a common language for researchers to study the criteria for potential future revisions and to aid in the development of medications and other interventions.
Diagnostic Criteria 301.13 (F34.0):
A. For at least 2 years (at least 1 year in children and adolescents) there have been numerous periods with hypomanie symptoms that do not meet criteria for a hypomanie episode and numerous periods with depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for a major depressive episode.
B. During the above 2-year period (1 year in children and adolescents), the hypomanie and depressive periods have been present for at least half the time and the individual has not been without the symptoms for more than 2 months at a time.
C. Criteria for a major depressive, manic, or hypomanie episode have never been met.
D. The symptoms in Criterion A are not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified or unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder.E. The symptoms are not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).
F. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
With anxious distress (see p. 149)_______________________________________
The essential feature of cyclothymic disorder is a chronic, fluctuating mood disturbance involving numerous periods of hypomanie symptoms and periods of depressive symptoms that are distinct from each other (Criterion A). The hypomanie symptoms are of insufficient number, severity, pervasiveness, or duration to meet full criteria for a hypo- manic episode, and the depressive symptoms are of insufficient number, severity, pervasiveness, or duration to meet full criteria for a major depressive episode. During the initial 2-year period (1 year for children or adolescents), the symptoms must be persistent (present more days than not), and any symptom-free intervals last no longer than 2 months (Criterion B). The diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder is made only if the criteria for a major depressive, manic, or hypomanie episode have never been met (Criterion C).
If an individual with cyclothymic disorder subsequently (i.e., after the initial 2 years in adults or 1 year in children or adolescents) experiences a major depressive, manic, or hypomanie episode, the diagnosis changes to major depressive disorder, bipolar I disorder, or other specified or unspecified bipolar and related disorder (subclassified as hypomanie episode without prior major depressive episode), respectively, and the cyclothymic disorder diagnosis is dropped.
The cyclothymic disorder diagnosis is not made if the pattern of mood swings is better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified and unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders (Criterion D), in which ease the mood symptoms are considered associated features of the psychotic disorder. The mood disturbance must also not be attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism) (Criterion E). Although some individuals may function particularly well during some of the periods of hypomania, over the prolonged course of the disorder, there must be clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning as a result of the mood disturbance (Criterion F). The impairment may develop as a result of prolonged periods of cyclical, often unpredictable mood changes (e.g., the individual may be regarded as temperamental, moody, unpredictable, inconsistent, or unreliable).
The lifetime prevalence of cyclothymic disorder is approximately 0.4%-l%. Prevalence in mood disorders clinics may range from 3% to 5%. In the general population, cyclothymic disorder is apparently equally common in males and females. In clinical settings, females with cyclothymic disorder may be more likely to present for treatment than males.