Bipolar 1 – DSM5

Source: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Click HERE to purchase. — NOTE: DSM IS AN INVALUABLE BOOK TO HAVE TO HELP YOU UNDERSTAND VARIOUS BRAIN DISORDERS. THIS POST IS AN EXCERPT FROM THE BOOK (DSM5). TO GET MORE INFORMATION ON ANY SPECIFIC BRAIN DISORDER, YOU CAN PURCHASE THIS BOOK OR FIND IT AT YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY. — The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the handbook used by health care professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental disorders. DSM contains descriptions, symptoms, and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. It provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about their patients and establishes consistent and reliable diagnoses that can be used in the research of mental disorders. It also provides a common language for researchers to study the criteria for potential future revisions and to aid in the development of medications and other interventions.

Bipolar I Disorder

Diagnostic Criteria

For a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, it is necessary to meet tlie following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypo- manic or major depressive episodes. 

Manic Episode

A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy, lasting at least 1 week and present most of the day, nearly every day (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).

B. During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy or activity, three (or more) of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) are present to a significant degree and represent a noticeable change from usual behavior:

1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

2. Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

3. More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

4. Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

5. Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli), as reported or observed.

6. Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation (i.e., purposeless non-goal-directed activity).

7. Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments).

C. The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.

D. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, other treatment) or to another medical condition.

Note: A full manic episode that emerges during antidepressant treatment (e.g., medication, electroconvulsive therapy) but persists at a fully syndromal level beyond the physiological effect of that treatment is sufficient evidence for a manic episode and, therefore, a bipolar I diagnosis.

Note: Criteria A-D constitute a manic episode. At least one lifetime manic episode is required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder.

Hypomanic Episode

A. A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting at least 4 consecutive days and present most of the day, nearly every day.

B. During the period of mood disturbance and increased energy and activity, three (or more) of the following symptoms (four if the mood is only irritable) have persisted, represent a noticeable change from usual behavior, and have been present to a significant degree:

1. Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

2. Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

3. More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

4. Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

5. Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli), as reported or observed.

6. Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation.

7. Excessive involvement in activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments). 

C. The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is uncharacteristic of the individual when not symptomatic.

D. The disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others.

E. The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or to necessitate hospitalization. If there are psychotic features, the episode is, by definition, manic.

F. The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, other treatment).

Note: A full hypomanic episode that emerges during antidepressant treatment (e.g., medication, electroconvulsive therapy) but persists at a fully syndromal level beyond the physiological effect of that treatment is sufficient evidence for a hypomanie episode diagnosis. However, caution is indicated so that one or two symptoms (particularly increased irritability, edginess, or agitation following antidepressant use) are not taken as sufficient for diagnosis of a hypomanie episode, nor necessarily indicative of a bipolar diathesis.

Note: Criteria A-F constitute a hypomanic episode. Hypomanic episodes are common in bipolar I disorder but are not required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder.

Major Depressive Episode

  1. Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly attributable to another medical condition.

1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad, empty, or hopeless) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). (Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.)

2. Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation).

3. Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. (Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gain.)

4. Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

5. Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others; not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

6. Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.

7. Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).

8. Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).

9. Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

  • The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
  • The episode is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition.

Note: Criteria A-C constitute a major depressive episode. Major depressive episodes are common in bipolar I disorder but are not required for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. 

Note: Responses to a significant loss (e.g., bereavement, financial ruin, losses from a natural disaster, a serious medical illness or disability) may include the feelings of intense sadness, rumination about the loss, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss noted in Criterion A, which may resemble a depressive episode. Although such symptoms may be understandable or considered appropriate to the loss, the presence of a major depressive episode in addition to the normal response to a significant loss should also be carefully considered. This decision inevitably requires the exercise of clinical judgment based on the individual’s history and the cultural norms for the expression of distress in the context of loss.(1)

Bipolar I Disorder

A. Criteria have been met for at least one manic episode (Criteria A-D under “Manic Episode” above).

B. The occurrence of the manic and major depressive episode(s) is not better explained by schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, or other specified or unspecified schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorder.

  • In distinguishing grief from a major depressive episode (MDE), it is useful to consider that in grief the predominant affect is feelings of emptiness and loss, while in MDE it is persistent depressed mood and the inability to anticipate happiness or pleasure. The dysphoria in grief is likely to decrease in intensity over days to Wfeeks and occurs in waves, the so-called pangs of grief. These waves tend to be associated with thoughts or reminders of the deceased. The depressed mood of a MDE is more persistent and not tied to specific thoughts or preoccupations. The pain of grief may be accompanied by positive emotions and humor that are uncharacteristic of the pervasive unhappiness and misery characteristic of a major depressive episode. The thought content associated with grief generally features a preoccupation with thoughts and memories of the deceased, rather than the self-critical or pessimistic ruminations seen in a MDE. In grief, self-esteem is generally preserved, whereas in a MDE, feelings of worthlessness and selfloathing are common. If self-derogatory ideation is present in grief, it typically involves perceived failings vis-à-vis the deceased (e.g., not visiting frequently enough, not telling the deceased how much he or she was loved). If a bereaved individual thinks about death and dying, such thoughts are generally focused on the deceased and possibly about “joining” the deceased, whereas in a major depressive episode such thoughts are focused on ending one’s own life because of feeling worthless, undeserving of life, or unable to cope with the pain of depression.

Specify:

With anxious distress (p. 149)

With mixed features (pp. 149-150)

With rapid cycling (pp. 150-151)

With melancholic features (p. 151)

With atypical features (pp. 151-152)

With mood-congruent psychotic features (p. 152)

With mood-incongruent psychotic features (p. 152)

With catatonia (p. 152). Coding note: Use additional code 293.89 (F06.1).

With peripartum onset (pp. 152-153)

With seasonal pattern (pp. 153-154)

Diagnostic Features

The essential feature of a manic episode is a distinct period during which there is an abnormally, persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and persistently increased activity or energy that is present for most of the day, nearly every day, for a period of at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary), accompanied by at least three additional symptoms from Criterion B. If the mood is irritable rather than elevated or expansive, at least four Criterion B symptoms must be present.

Mood in a manic episode is often described as euphoric, excessively cheerful, high, or “feeling on top of the world.” In some cases, the mood is of such a highly infectious quality that it is easily recognized as excessive and may be characterized by unlimited and haphazard enthusiasm for interpersonal, sexual, or occupational interactions. For example, the individual may spontaneously start extensive conversations with strangers in public. Often the predominant mood is irritable rather than elevated, particularly when the individual’s wishes are denied or if the individual has been using substances. Rapid shifts in mood over brief periods of time may occur and are referred to as lability (i.e., the alterna tion among euphoria, dysphoria, and irritability). In children, happiness, silliness and “goofiness” are normal in the context of special occasions; however, if these symptoms are recurrent, inappropriate to the context, and beyond what is expected for the developmental level of the child, they may meet Criterion A. If the happiness is unusual for a child (i.e., distinct from baseline), and the mood change occurs at the same time as symptoms that meet Criterion B for mania, diagnostic certainty is increased; however, the mood change must be accompanied by persistently increased activity or energy levels that are obvious to those who know the child well.

During the manic episode, the individual may engage in multiple overlapping new projects. The projects are often initiated with little knowledge of the topic, and nothing seems out of the individual’s reach. The increased activity levels may manifest at unusual hours of the day.

Inflated self-esteem is typically present, ranging from uncritical self-confidence to marked grandiosity, and may reach delusional proportions (Criterion B1). Despite lack of any particular experience or talent, the individual may embark on complex tasks such as writing a novel or seeing publicity for some impractical invention. Grandiose delusions (e.g., of having a special relationship to a famous person) are common. In children, overestimation of abilities and belief that, for example, they are the best at a sport or the smartest in the class is normal; however, when such beliefs are present despite clear evidence to the contrary or the child attempts feats that are clearly dangerous and, most important, represent a change from the child’s normal behavior, the grandiosity criterion should be considered satisfied.

One of the most common features is a decreased need for sleep (Criterion B2) and is distinct from insomnia in which the individual wants to sleep or feels the need to sleep but is unable. The individual may sleep httle, if at all, or may awaken several hours earlier than usual, feeling rested and full of energy. When the sleep disturbance is severe, the individual may go for days without sleep, yet not feel tired. Often a decreased need for sleep heralds the onset of a manic episode.

Speech can be rapid, pressured, loud, and difficult to interrupt (Criterion B3). Individuals may talk continuously and without regard for others’ wishes to communicate, often in an intrusive manner or without concern for the relevance of what is said. Speech is sometimes characterized by jokes, puns, amusing irrelevancies, and theatricality, with dramatic mannerisms, singing, and excessive gesturing. Loudness and forcefulness of speech often become more important than what is conveyed. If the individual’s mood is more irritable than expansive, speech may be marked by complaints, hostile comments, or angry tirades, particularly if attempts are made to interrupt the individual. Both Criterion A and Criterion B symptoms may be accompanied by symptoms of the opposite (i.e., depressive) pole (see “with mixed features” specifier, pp. 149-150).

Often the individual’s thoughts race at a rate faster than they can be expressed through speech (Criterion B4). Frequently there is flight of ideas evidenced by a nearly continuous flow of accelerated speech, with abrupt shifts from one topic to another. When flight of ideas is severe, speech may become disorganized, incoherent, and particularly distressful to the individual. Sometimes thoughts are experienced as so crowded that it is very difficult to speak.

Distractibility (Criterion B5) is evidenced by an inability to censor immaterial external stimuli (e.g., the interviewer’s attire, background noises or conversations, furnishings in the room) and often prevents individuals experiencing mania from holding a rational conversation or attending to instructions.

The increase in goal-directed activity often consists of excessive planning and participation in multiple activities, including sexual, occupational, political, or religious activities. Increased sexual drive, fantasies, and behavior are often present. Individuals in a manic episode usually show increased sociability (e.g., renewing old acquaintances or calling or contacting friends or even strangers), without regard to the intrusive, domineering, and demanding nature of these interactions. They often display psychomotor agitation or restlessness (i.e., purposeless activity) by pacing or by holding multiple conversations simulta neously. Some individuals write excessive letters, e-mails, text messages, and so forth, on many different topics to friends, public figures, or the media.

The increased activity criterion can be difficult to ascertain in children; however, when the child takes on many tasks simultaneously, starts devising elaborate and unrealistic plans for projects, develops previously absent and developmentally inappropriate sexual preoccupations (not accounted for by sexual abuse or exposure to sexually explicit material), then Criterion B might be met based on clinical judgment. It is essential to determine whether the behavior represents a change from the child’s baseline behavior; occurs most of the day, nearly every day for the requisite time period; and occurs in temporal association with other symptoms of mania.

The expansive mood, excessive optimism, grandiosity, and poor judgment often lead to reckless involvement in activities such as spending sprees, giving away possessions, reckless driving, foolish business investments, and sexual promiscuity that is unusual for the individual, even though these activities are likely to have catastrophic consequences (Criterion B7). The individual may purchase many unneeded items without the money to pay for them and^ in some cases, give them away. Sexual behavior may include infidelity or indiscriminate sexual encounters with strangers, often disregarding the risk of sexually transmitted diseases or interpersonal consequences.

The manic episode must result in marked impairment in social or occupational functioning or require hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others (e.g., financial losses, illegal activities, loss of employment, self-injurious behavior). By definition, the presence of psychotic features during a manic episode also satisfies Criterion C.

Manic symptoms or syndromes that are attributable to the physiological effects of a drug of abuse (e.g., in the context of cocaine or amphetamine intoxication), the side effects of medications or treatments (e.g., steroids, L-dopa, antidepressants, stimulants), or another medical condition do not count toward the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. However, a fully syndromal manic episode that arises during treatment (e.g., with medications, elec- troconvulsive therapy, light therapy) or drug use and persists beyond the physiological effect of the inducing agent (i.e., after a medication is fully out of the individual’s system or the effects of electroconvulsive therapy would be expected to have dissipated completely) is sufficient evidence for a manic episode diagnosis (Criterion D). Caution is indicated so that one or two symptoms (particularly increased irritability, edginess, or agitation following antidepressant use) are not taken as sufficient for diagnosis of a manic or hypomanie episode, nor necessarily an indication of a bipolar disorder diathesis. It is necessary to meet criteria for a manic episode to make a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, but it is not required to have hypomanie or major depressive episodes. However, they may precede or follow a manic episode. Full descriptions of the diagnostic features of a hypomanie episode may be found within the text for bipolar II disorder, and the features of a major depressive episode are described within the text for major depressive disorder.

Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis

During a manic episode, individuals often do not perceive that they are ill or in need of treatment and vehemently resist efforts to be treated. Individuals may change their dress, makeup, or personal appearance to a more sexually suggestive or flamboyant style. Some perceive a sharper sense of smell, hearing, or vision. Gambling and antisocial behaviors may accompany the manic episode. Some individuals may become hostile and physically threatening to others and, when delusional, may become physically assaultive or suicidal. Catastrophic consequences of a manic episode (e.g., involuntary hospitalization, difficulties with the law, serious financial difficulties) often result from poor judgment, loss of insight, and hyperactivity.

Mood may shift very rapidly to anger or depression. Depressive symptoms may occur during a manic episode and, if present, may last moments, hours, or, more rarely, days (see “with mixed features” specifier, pp. 149-150).

Prevalence

The 12-month prevalence estimate in the continental United States was 0.6% for bipolar I disorder as defined in DSM-IV. Twelve-month prevalence of bipolar I disorder across 11 countries ranged from 0.0% to 0.6%. The lifetime male-to-female prevalence ratio is approximately 1.1:1.

Development and Course

Mean age at onset of the first manic, hypomanie, or major depressive episode is approximately 18 years for bipolar I disorder. Special considerations are necessary to detect the diagnosis in children. Since children of the same chronological age may be at different developmental stages, it is difficult to define with precision what is ”normal” or “expected” at any given point. Therefore, each child should be judged according to his or her own baseline. Onset occurs throughout the life cycle, including first onsets in the 60s or 70s. Onset of manic symptoms (e.g., sexual or social disinhibition) in late mid-life or late- life should prompt consideration of medical conditions (e.g., frontotemporal neurocogni- tive disorder) and of substance ingestion or withdrawal.

More than 90% of individuals who have a single manic episode go on to have recurrent mood episodes. Approximately 60% of manic episodes occur immediately before a major depressive episode. Individuals with bipolar I disorder who have multiple (four or more) mood episodes (major depressive, manic, or hypomanie) within 1 year receive the specifier “with rapid cycling.”